Riesgo cardiovascular y de diabetes en preescolares

Biomarker disorder of cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes in preschoolers in Northwest Mexico: an exploratory study

Martha Nydia Ballesteros Vásquez, Saraí García Gámez, Elizabeth Artalejo Ochoa, Bianca Vargas Tequida, José Antonio Ponce Martínez, Alma Elizabeth Robles Sardin, María Isabel Grijalva Haro

Resumen

OBJETIVO: Hacer un análisis exploratorio de las posibles alteraciones en los marcadores clínicos de riesgo cardiovascular y diabetes tipo 2 en preescolares habitantes de la zona urbana y conurbada del municipio de Hermosillo, Sonora, al Noroeste de México.

MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional y transversal efectuado en niños de las zonas urbana y conurbada. Se midieron: peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura, porcentaje de grasa corporal y presión arterial. Se evaluaron el perfil de lípidos y las concentraciones de glucosa e insulina.

RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 82 niños de edad promedio de 5.0 años; 48 de la zona conurbada y 34 de la urbana. Se encontró la coexistencia de problemas de desnutrición, sobrepeso y porcentaje de grasa corporal elevado (27% ± 0.52). En la zona conurbada hubo mayor porcentaje de niños con alteraciones en los lípidos: triglicéridos elevados (35%); HDL-c bajo (25%), (p < 0.01), y pre-hipertensión arterial, mientras que en la zona urbana hubo mayor porcentaje de niños con glucosa alterada (12%) y concentraciones elevadas de insulina y resistencia a ésta.

CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos de este estudio muestran que los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de diabetes tipo 2 prevalecen en niños de 3 a 6 años habitantes de las zonas urbana y conurbada de Hermosillo, Sonora.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is a health problem that has been growing in the last decades in the world and particularly in Mexico. In addition to lipid alterations, glucosa and insulin are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Studies the Northwest of Mexico have focused on the evaluation of these risk factors in school-age children and have shown the presence of the metabolic syndrome. However, there is insufficient information on cardiovascular health in preschool children.

OBJECTIVE: To perform an exploratory analysis of the presence of posible alterations in clinical biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes in preschoolers living in the urban and conurbated zones of Hermosillo, México.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out, with two study groups: children living in the urban zone (ZU) and children in the conurbation zone (ZCU). Weight, height, waist circumference, percentage of body fat and blood pressure, lipids, glucose and insulin profile were assessed.

RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 5.0 years (n = 82), 48 from the ZCU and 34 from the ZU. Problems of malnutrition, overweight and high body fat (27% ± 0.59) coexist. No cases of obesity were observed. In the ZCU of the city there is a higher percentage of children with lipid abnormalities: elevated triglycerides (35%), low HDL-C (25%), (p < 0.01), and prehypertension, whereas in the ZU there was a higher percentage of children with impaired glucose (12%) and elevated insulin levels and insulin resistance.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show the risk factors for type 2 diabetes and that cardiovascular disease are present in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years from ZU and ZCU of the Hermosillo, Mexico.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18233/APM40No1pp1-101755


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